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Library Media

APA Style Guide

For online APA 7th edition answers, check out APA's  free online seventh edition style and grammar guidelines.

Online Resources

General Rules

  • All citations should be double spaced; Indent after the first line of each entry
  • Alphabetize by the first word of the entry; entries are not numbered
  • Editions of books are noted after the title in the following format: (2nd ed.) First editions are not listed as such. If no edition is listed, omit the edition section
  • Italics must be used for book and periodical titles
  • Capitalize ONLY the first word of a title, the first word of a subtitle, and proper nouns in titles of books and articles, no matter how they appear in a database or catalog
  • Use the abbreviations p. or pp. only for multi-page newspaper articles, encyclopedia entries, and chapters or articles in edited books; Do not use the abbreviation p. or pp. (or any other abbreviation) for magazine and journal articles
  • Dates are in Year, Month Day format (e.g., 1999, December 20)
  • If no author is listed, begin with the title
  • The date is in parenthesis after the author's name (or title if no author is listed)
  • Use (n.d.) if no date is given
  • Personal Communication includes private letters, memos, some electronic communication (i.e. email or messages from nonarchival discussion groups), personal interviews, telephone conversations, etc. Cite personal communications in text only.