Skip to Main Content

How to Cite Your Sources

A guide to some of the citation styles

APSA Style Manual

In-Text Citations

General Format

(Last name year)

(Last name year, page numbers)


(Arena 2014)

(Durant n.d.)

(Jentleson 2015, 12–14)

(Dodd and Oppenheimer 1977)

(Roberts, Smith, and Haptonstahl 2016)

Four or more authors: (Angel et al. 1986)

Multiple sources cited together: (Hochschild 2015; Jentleson 2015)

Common Reference Formats

General Format

Full Name of author (Last, First). Year. Title of Book. Publication Location: Publisher. 


Book, one author:

Hertsgaard, Mark. 1988. On Bended Knee: The Press and the Reagan Presidency. New York: Schocken Books.

Chapter from book:

Halchin, L. Elaine. 2001. "And This Parent Went to Market: Education as Public Verus Private Good." In School Choice in the Real World, eds. Robert Maranto, Scott Milliman, Frederick Hess and April Gresham. Boulder, CO: Westview.

Books with multiple editions:

Davidson, Roger H., Walter J. Oleszek, Frances E. Lee, and Eric Schickler. 2016. Congress and Its Members, 14th edition. Washington, DC: CQ Press.

Multivolume Works:

Hume, David. 1932. Volume II 1766–1776, Vol. 2 of The Letters of David Hume, ed. J. Y. T. Greig. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

General Format

Full Name of Author (Last, First). Year. "Article Title." Journal Title volume # (issue number/name): page number(s).  


Journal article, one author:

Aldrich, John H. 1980. “A Dynamic Model of Presidential Nomination Campaigns.” American Political Science Review 74 (3): 651–69.

Brzoska, Michael. 2003. “From Dumb to Smart? Recent Reforms of U.N. Sanctions.” Global Governance 9 (October-December): 519-535.

Journal article, multiple authors:

Herrmann, Richard K, and Jonathan W. Keller. 2004. “Beliefs, Values, and Strategic Choice: U.S. Leaders’ Decisions to Engage, Contain, and Use Force in an Era of Globalization.” Journal of Politics 66 (May): 557-80.

Book Reviews:

Chambers, Simone. 2018. “Against Democracy. By Jason Brennan.” Review of Against Democracy, Jason Brennan. Perspectives on Politics 16 (2): 503–5. doi: 10.1017/S153759271800066X.

Magazine article:

Prufer, Olaf. 1964. "The Hopewell Cult." Scientific American, December, 13-15. 

Daily Newspaper Article, no author:

Sacramento Bee. 2004. "Eyes on Sudan: Victims of Racist Repression need Help Now." 9 July.


Legal Citation

Marbury v. Madison. 1803. 5 U.S. (1 Cranch) 137; 2 L. Ed. 60.

Government Documents online

U.S. Department of Education. National Center for Education Statistics. 2004. Crime and Safety in America’s Public Schools: Selected Findings from the School Survey on Crime and Safety. (July 23, 2005).