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How to Cite Your Sources

A guide to some of the citation styles

IEEE Style Manual

In-Text Citations

The citation should be numbered in square brackets, eg.[1] or [26]  in the order in which they appear in the text.

Each reference number should be enclosed in square brackets on the same line as the text, before any punctuation.

Once a source has been cited, the same number is used in all subsequent references.

"...end of the line for my research [13]."

"Several recent studies [3, 4, 15, 16] have suggested that..."

Reference List

  • Title your list as References either centered or aligned left at the top of the page.
  • References should be listed numerically by the first appearance within the text
  • Create a hanging indent for each reference with the bracketed numbers flush with the left side of the page. The hanging indent highlights the numerical sequence of your references.
  • The author's name is listed as first initial, last name. 
  • The title of an article is listed in quotation marks.
  • The title of a journal or book is listed in italics.

Books and Media

[#] Author(s), Title: Subtitle, Edition(if not the first), vol.(if a multivolume work). Place of publication: Publisher, Year, Page number(s)

Single Author 

[1] A. Winford, AI: A Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015.

Two or More Authors

[2] M. Smith and S. A. Wilson, Robots: a Guide. Berlin: Springer, 2016.

No Author

[3] The Oxford Dictionary of Construction, Surveying and Civil Engineering, 5th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012.

Edited Work

[5] D. Yang, Ed., Lasers. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1999.

Online Book

[6] S. Calm. (1996, June 1). Engineering (2nd edition). [Online]. 27(3). Available: [May 21, 2003].

[2] L. Stein, “Random patterns,” in Computers and You, J. S. Brake, Ed. New York: Wiley, 1994, pp. 55-70.

[#] A. A. Person, Responsibility (if appropriate), Title: Subtitle, Date of broadcast (if appropriate) [Format]. Special credits (if appropriate). Place of publication: Publisher, Year

[1] R. Aedy, Interviewer, D. Hector, Interviewee, and S. Clark, Producer, "The future of engineering," The Buzz, 25 Sept., 2004 [Radio broadcast]. Sydney: ABC Radio.

Audio Recordings
[2] D. Fisher, Writer, and T. Baker, Presenter, Doctor Who and the Creature From the Pit [Sound recording]. Bath, UK: BBC Audiobooks, 2009.

Home Video
[3] I. Holm, Narrator, and J. Fullerton-Smith, Producer, How to Build a Human [DVD]. London: BBC; 2002.

[4] T. Jones and P. Williams, Reporters, BP releases report into Gulf of Mexico oil spill. Lateline, 8 Sept., 2010 [Television broadcast]. Sydney: ABC1 Television.

[#] A. A. Person OR Screen name. "Title of video," YouTube OR Vimeo, Date video uploaded, Year. [Video file]. Available: internet address of specific video. [Accessed: Month Day, Year].

[1] HDCYT. "Charlie bit my finger - again !," YouTube, May. 22, 2007 [Video file]. Available: [Accessed: Jan. 28, 2014].