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How to Cite Your Sources

A guide to some of the citation styles

Citing Web Sources in MLA

General Format

Author's Last Name, First Name. Title of Website, Name of Organization Affiliated with the Website, date of copyright or date last modified/updated if available, URL. Accessed Day Month Year site was visited.

Individual Author 

Felluga, Dino. Guide to Literary and Critical Theory. Purdue U, 28 Nov. 2003, Accessed 10 May 2006.

Group Author 

American Kennel Club. Are they playing or fighting? A guide to evaluating rough pup play. 19 May 2019 Accessed 15 June 2020.

Listserv, Forum, or Blog Post

Salmar1515 [Sal Hernandez]. “Re: Best Strategy: Fenced Pastures vs. Max Number of Rooms?” BoardGameGeek, 29 Sept. 2008, Accessed 5 Apr. 2009.

Comment On an Online Post

Not Omniscient Enough. Comment on “Flight Attendant Tells Passenger to ‘Shut Up’ After Argument Over Pasta.” ABC News, 9 Jun 2016, 4:00 p.m.,


National Geographic [@natgeo]. Photo of Bering Sea. Instagram, photographed by Corey Arnold, 3 Apr. 2017,


@tombrokaw. “SC demonstrated why all the debates are the engines of this campaign.” Twitter, 22 Jan. 2012, 3:06 a.m.,


Rick Mercer Report. Spread the Net Challenge Winners 2016. Facebook, 23 Mar. 2016, 9:00 a.m., Accessed 26 June 2016. 

General Format

Last Name, First Name of video creator or Username of Creator. "Title of Video." Title of the Hosting Website, uploaded by Username, Day Month Year of Publication, URL of video. Accessed Day Month Year video was viewed.

With Creators Name

Sethi, Ramit. "How to Write a Winning Resume, With Ramit Sethi." YouTube, uploaded by I Will Teach You to Be Rich, 23 June 2015, Accessed 28 June 2016.

Without Known Name

"What is a Gig Economy" YouTube, uploaded by TED-Ed, 1 September 2022, Accessed 1 October 2022.

Citing Audio-Visual Materials in APA

General Format 

Title of Movie. Contributor(s). Publisher/Production Company, Year of Release. 

DVD of a Film

The Usual Suspects. Directed by Bryan Singer, performances by Kevin Spacey, Gabriel Byrne, Chazz Palminteri, Stephen Baldwin, and Benicio Del Toro. Polygram, 1995. 

Film Streaming

Coraline. Directed by Henry Selick, screenplay by Henry Selick and Neil Gaiman, Laika, 2009. Netflix.

General Format

"Title of Episode." Title of TV Series, Contributors Name(s), season, episode,  Production Company, Year of Release. DVD or name of streamer

TV Series

Outlander, developed by Ronald D. Moore, Left Bank Picture/Sony Pictures Television Production, 2014. DVD.

An Episode of a Series

"The One Where Chandler Can't Cry." Friends, created by Marta Kauffman, performance by Matthew Perry, season 6, episode 14, Warner Brothers, 2004.

General Format

Composer, C.C. Title of Recording. Title of album. Label. Year

Musical Album

Beyoncé. Lemonade, Parkwood Entertainment, 2016

Single Song or Track

Queen. "Bohemian Rhapsody". On A Night at the Opera. EMI; Elektra. 1975


“Best of Not My Job Musicians.” Wait Wait…Don’t Tell Me! from NPR, 4 June 2016,

Speech Recording

Stein, Bob. “Reading and Writing in the Digital Era.” Discovering Digital Dimensions, Computers, and Writing Conference, 23 May 2003, Union Club Hotel, West Lafayette, IN. Keynote Address.

General Format

Artist, Name. Title of Work. Year. Location. URL

Artwork in a Museum 

Goya, Francisco. The Family of Charles IV. 1800. Museo del Prado,

Photograph in a Book or Magazine 

McCurry, Steve. Afghan girl. 1985. National Geographic.