The surname of the author(s) and the publication year of the referenced document are enclosed within parentheses. The reference list is arranged alphabetically by the author’s surname.
Sequential numbers, either in superscripts or on the line, correspond to entries on the reference list
Complete the list of references alphabetically by surname then assign them numbers based on their occurrence in this list. In-text citations corresponded to the reference list using numerical superscripts.
Name-Year Citations in CSE
The following examples apply to the Name-Year System ONLY:
The author’s name and the year of publication are listed in parentheses at the end of the sentence:
Example: This claim was later refuted (Smith 2018).
If the author’s name is clearly mentioned in the text, it can be directly followed by the year of publication, in parentheses:
Example: Smith (2018) later disproved Jones' claim.
If both the author name and year are clearly mentioned in the text, there is no need to include a parenthetical reference:
Example: In 2008, Smith refuted his claim.
If you are citing a specific part of a document such as a direct quote, or a chart, include the page number
Example: “The results clearly contradict those published in 2010 by the Jones lab.” (Smith 2018, p. 36).
If the author of a document is an organization, use an abbreviated form of the organization name.
Example: The Jones lab was found to have contaminated results (FDA 2019).